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The Effects Of French Revolution

The French Revolution is considered to be one of the greatest Revolutions in history. Some of the effects of French Revolution is still widespread today.

Some of the most relevant after effects of The French Revolution are-

1.Spread Of Liberalism

2.Rise of Modern Nationalism

3.Rise of thoughts such as Liberty and Equality

4.Inspiration to many Famous Revolution’s

5.Drastic Changes in the Rights of People

6.Birth Of Ideologies.

The Rise Of The French Revolution

The morning of 14 July 1789 was Bleak in the city of Paris.

Rumors were being spread that the king ordered his troops to open up fire on the citizens.

 Soon a group of some 7000 men and women marched and stormed the fortress prison, The Bastille, where they went for ammunitions. The commander of Bastille was killed and the Prisoners were released even though only 7 were jailed.

Why did the citizens of France turn up against the King? Why violence flared on the city of Paris?

The French Revolution wasn’t an overnight uprising but rather like a pressure cooker pressurized for so long that it finally burst out loud and fierce enough to change the face of Europe forever!

And the effects on the French revolution is still widespread!

The Death Of The King

At age 21 Louis XVI became the King of France upon the death of his grandfather Louis XV on 10 may 1774.

Louis XVI was often noted to be shy, conventional and unimaginative.

He was too young to be on the throne and the French Citizens were already angry due to the fact that France was already on a Huge debt after their war with Britain.

His wife Marie Antoinette lived in a posh and lavish life even getting criticisms for her hairstyles, wearing expensive pus 

(At one time it was said that Marie Antoinette was said to have a different hairstyle everyday designed by her hairdresser)

This lifestyle was all when 80 percent of the Population lived in Poverty.

Meanwhile the citizens were spreading rumors about the king not having the ability to conceive a child.

Some historians suggest that King Louis XVI suffered from Phimosis , An uncomfortable medical condition in which it is difficult/Impossible for a man’s foreskins to retract .

While some say it is a complete lie. Anyways he was ridiculed by the citizens for his inability to conceive a child.

The Problems faced by the Citizens of France

The Problems faced by the Citizens of France (which eventually led to the French Revolution) were plenty.However the major reasons for the outburst of the French Revolution can be brought down to six reasons.

The Six Major Causes Of The French Revolution

Although French Revolution was a result of many reasons in a short time period, Here are the six major causes of French revolution-

  • Ineffective leadership of King Louis XVI

Louis XVI became the King of France upon the death of his grandfather at a very young age of 21.He was already incompetent enough to lead France in normal conditions, let alone during the turmoil which lea to the French Revolution.

Let them Eat Cake!

His wife Marie Antoinette as mentioned above lived a lavish life and was also infamous for the remark “Let Them Eat Cake!”   (Translation of the French phrase “Qu’ils mangent de la brioche”)  upon being told that the peasants had no bread.This remark showed the apathy the monarchy had over the poor people in France.

  • The period of enlightenment

The Enlightenment period was one of the major contributors to the French revolution.

The Enlightenment was simply an intellectual movement that challenged the old ways of thinking and inspired the revolutionary ideas among the common people.

Immanuel Kant in his essay ‘What Is Enlightenment?’ written in 1784 summarized the era in the following words – ‘Dare to know! Have courage to use your own reason!’

The ideas of philosophy was so common that the ordinary people began regularly talking about it on coffee shop and salons.

The ideas were also spread across via newspapers and books.

  • The Huge Financial Crisis

King Louis XVI when he descended on the throne found an akmost empty treasury. Long years of  had already drained a lot of money.

Adding to it the cost of maintaining an immense palace and luxurious lifestyle o the monarchy further depleted the treasury.

Louis XVI also helped the 13 American colonies to gain independence, which furthered the debt.

The war added more than 1 billion livres in expense and the total debt had already risen to 2 billion livres and the lenders began charging extra interest on the loans lent which further added more fuel to the already burning treasury!

This forced King Louis XVI to to increase taxes.

  • The Food Scarcity

The Population of France was about 23 million in 1715.

By 1789 it had an exponential growth to 28 million. This necessitated the demand for foodgrains ,But the production of grains could not keep up the growing population.

The wages of the workers were not increased. But the prices of food grains increased exponentially.

Thus the poor could not afford grains, This also increased the gap between the rich and poor in a very significant manner.

The bad harvest + Increasing Population + Low wages deteriorated the condition of the poor citizens in France.

  • The Drastic Weathers

In 1784 Europe was hit by severe winters and summers which included extreme droughts that caused poor harvests which ultimately lead to famine.

In 1787 and 1788 France was hit by another series of winters which lead to a huge fall in food production.

  • Social Inequality and the division of estates

 France under the Ancient Regime (before the French Revolution) ,The society was divided  into three estates- 

The First Estate (clergy) 

The Second Estate (nobility) 

Third Estate (commoners) 

The king was not considered part of any estate. 

One Crucial difference between the estates of the Ancient Regime was the burden of taxation.  

The nobles and the clergy were largely excluded from taxation while the commoners(who were also the majority) paid high direct taxes, which were burdensome to them.  All these major reasons along with many others cause the lid to break and cause the French Revolution.

As said earlier, The French revolution had too much pace in a less period of Time. Hence it is best to understand the French Revolution with the help of a timeline. 

Important Dates in French Revolution

 1. 4 May 1789 The Estates General is summoned by King Louis XVI to propose solutions to France’s Financial Problems, Later The members of the 3rd Estate finds they are treated unequally by burdening them with taxes. 

2. 14th June 1789 King Louis XVI asks the Government to approve a rise in Taxes. 

3.17 June 1789 A revolutionary national assembly is formed by the 3rd estate to fight for their rights and against the inequalities. 

4.14th July 1789 Rumors spread that the king had ordered his troops to shut down the National Assembly. 

5.5 October 1789 7000 woman March Down to protest about the hike in the prices of bread, which became a common staple diet for many people in the 3rd estate. 

6.25 June 1791 King Louis XVI and the queen Marie Antoinette attempts to flee France. 

7.1792 to 1801-France war with Austria and other countries 

8.The Year 1793 The Reign of Terror

9.The Year 1804 Napoleon becomes The Emperor of France. 

Women and the French revolution

Some effects of the French Revolution was the active role played by women.

Majority of the woman from the 3rd estate had to work (mostly as laundresses, selling flowers, work as servants, sell vegetables and fruits)to supplement the family earnings.

Most of them were uneducated, Only daughters of noble estate or wealthy third estates family had the luxury to teach the woman in their families. 

About sixty woman clubs sprung up in different French cities at the time of the revolution.

Two of the most famous women clubs were Republican Women and The society of Revolutionary.

Some of their demands were that woman enjoy the same political rights as men.(They were angry about the fact that they were reduced to as passive citizens by the constitution of 1791).

 However they played a major part in the French revolution.(and the right to vote was only enabled to them in they year 1946)  

The Reign Of Terror

Maximillian Robespierre was one of the major spearheads heading the French revolution.

He believed in the concepts of equal rights and believed in the system of “Government by the people”.

But he practiced the exact opposite of what he preached by killing tens of thousands mercilessly calling them “The enemies of the revolution”. 

After the death of the king in 1793,The national assembly was formed. 

They believed that France was full of spies sent by the foreign powers who wanted to bring back the system of monarchy. Thus the Jacobians began to execute anyone who suspected of working against them.

Around 40,000 people were killed in Paris alone during this period. This period of merciless killings ended when Robespierre was sent to the Guillotine. The Guillotine

The Guillotine

The Guillotine was used during the French revolution to execute people as quickly as possible. The Guillotine also had another name “The National Razor” and was used to execute up to 20 people on an average everyday.  

The rise of Napoleon Bonaparte

The early years of 1804,Napolean Bonaparte crowned himself as the Emperor of France.

He was seen as a liberator who would bring peace and freedom to the people. 

But soon him and his army were seen everywhere as an invading force. He was finally brought into his knees in the Battle of Waterloo in the year 1815.(The entire set of events are too long and would require another independent article dedicated to it) 

Conclusion

 The French revolution is indeed one of the greatest revolutions to have happened. The ideas ranging from Democratic system to Liberalism is the prime example that the French revolution still has a part in the modern society. The effects of the French revolution still lingers on everywhere

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Was Hitler A Vegetarian

Rare Adolf Hitler propaganda pictures found which show the evil dictator  posing with kids and baby deer in a bizarre attempt to make him look  friendly
Hitler tending a fawn

Propaganda or a Fact?

Adolf Hitler once said “One thing I can predict to eaters of meat: the world of the future will be vegetarian.”

Hitler was a vegetarian because of his concern for animal suffering, noting that he was often distressed by images of animal cruelty and sufferings.

In 1942, Hitler said, “The only thing of which I shall be incapable is to share the sheiks’ mutton with them. I’m a vegetarian, and they must spare me from their meat.”

Hitler’s close Aide Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Goebbels recorded the following in his diary-

An extended chapter of our talk was devoted by the Fuhrer to the vegetarian question.

 He believes more than ever that meat-eating is harmful to humanity. Of course he knows that during the war we cannot completely upset our food system. After the war, however, he intends to tackle this problem also.

An excrept from Joseph Goebbels diary

Maybe he is right. Certainly the arguments that he adduces in favor of his standpoint are very compelling.

The Conversations

The conversations between Adolf Hitler and his inner circle which took place between July 1941 and November 1944, Hitler often talked about himself as a vegetarian.

hitler vegetarian
Adolf Hitler with his dog Blondi

Hitler banning Vegetarian Societies

Most people have often questioned Hitler’s commitment to the vegetarian cause because the Nazi’s banned vegetarian societies and the persecution of their leaders

But the Nazi ban on Non-Nazi Organizations was so widespread that anything which is non-Nazi was simply banned.

The Book ‘In The Mind Of Adolf Hitler’ by psychologist Walter C. Langer, the author quotes:

“If he (Hitler) does not eat meat, drink alcoholic beverages, or smoke, it is not due to the fact that he has some kind of inhibition or does it because he believes it will improve his health.”

The Book ‘In The Mind Of Adolf Hitler’

“He abstains from these because he is following the example of the great German, Richard Wagner, or because he has discovered that it increases his energy and endurance to such a degree that he can give much more of himself to the creation of the new German Reich.”

The Book ‘In The Mind Of Adolf Hitler’

According to one of the quotes by Hitler’s food tester Wölk , Hitler deliberately avoided meat and his meal was was of vegetables, rice, pasta, noodles and exotic fruits, which were a real real rarity at the time. [BBC]

Atoning the death

The psychoanalyst Erich Fromm speculated that Hitler’s vegetarianism was actually a means for him to atone the death of his half-niece Geli Raubal.

It was a also a way to prove to others that he was simply incapable of killing.

Hitler the Antivivisectionist

Commercial animal trapping was banned and imposed severe restrictions were imposed on hunting .

There even was a prohibition on boiling of lobsters and crabs.

In one incident, A fisherman was sent to a concentration camp for cutting up a bait frog.

Evidences suggest that Hitler was also an Antivivisectionist 

(An Antivivisectionist is the one who opposes the practice of performing operations on live animals for the purpose of experimentation or scientific research).

It is said that At social events, he sometimes gave graphic accounts of the slaughter of animals in an effort to make his dinner guests give up eating meat.

The health condition of Hitler

There could be another reason to why Hitler became a Vegetarian- Due to his poor health conditions. Mostly his doctors would have advised him to become a vegetarian.

Conclusion

There is a wide array of evidences which prove Hitler was a strict vegetarian throughout until his death in 1945.

But does him becoming a vegetarian and caring for animals make him any less cruel?

No.

The Auschwitz camp where millions perished
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Lost On History

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THE FALL OF THE ROMANIAN DICTATOR

How a single second of action bought a communist dictatorship to an end.

Communism was an ideology which thrived for 80 long years until it started loosing its control from the late 1980’s.Communist regimes started crumbling one by one due to defective organization.

In the last few months of the decade, Berlin wall fell and countries where communism reigned for years such as Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Bulgaria were being swept by revolutions.

Nicolae Ceaușescu, The Communist Dictator of Romania knew that at this rate revolutions would soon hit his government. But he was confident that he could withstand the revolution. He didn’t even bother the riots against his government rule in The Romanian city of Timișoara on 17th December 1989.

To prove the Romanians and the rest of the world that majority of the population loved him (or feared him),He organized a mega rally and filled the Romanian City square with 80,000 people on 21st of December 1989.

All of Romanians were instructed to stop whatever they were doing at that time and tune into their televisions and radios to hear speech of Nicolae Ceaușescu.

The crowd which gathered were enthusiastic holding flags, with the usual placards that said “long live Ceausescu” and, “long live the Romanian Communist Party”

A crowd of 80,000 with placards of “Long Live Ceausescu”

 And Nicolae Ceaușescu at his building balcony started to give a riveting speech with “Dear Comrades and Friends…”(as he always did countless times before) and boasted on the greatness of Romanian socialism for a period of 8 minutes and the crowed clapped along to whatever he said.

The Beginning of the End

And Immediately what followed simply changed the history of Romania.

Just as Nicolae Ceaușescu starts another sentence of his speech saying ‘I want to thank the initiators and organizers of this great event in Bucharest, considering it as a—-’

And suddenly Nicolae Ceaușescu becomes silent and freezes in shock and disbelief as you can see in the below image.

 

Nicolae in disbelief.

In a matter of one second his life changed.

Someone in the crowed booed.

And following that person another booed.

 And another and another and another. 

Within a matter of few seconds the entire masses of the people gathered at the city began booing and shouting and cursing abuse on Nicolae Ceaușescu.

And mind you this all happened in live Television ,The entire Romanian population heard and saw what was happening on Television and radios abusing him.

The Securiate -The secret police of the government ordered the live broadcast to be stopped immediately.

But the Television crews disobeyed.

They still recorded it live. Now all of Romania saw what was happening.

Nicolae Ceaușescu yelled “Hello Hello!”  acting as if it was the problem was with the mike in front of him.

HIs wife Elena ordered the population to shut up, But Nicolae Ceaușescu scolded her in front of live television ‘You be quiet’! and he appealed the crowed in the square “My comrades be quiet comrades….”

Nicolae with his wife Elena,4 days before they get executed.

But they never did.

The Romanian communist government crumbled. 

Nicolae Ceaușescu dominated the 20 million Romanians for years. All ended when a person booed and others followed him.

The Agitated Crowd

All because of that one second.(By the way no one knows who booed first, It still remains a mystery to this day.

After this speech Nicolae Ceaușescu ran away and was caught almost immediately and was executed 4 days later, still wearing the same clothes.

The main charge against him in the Trial was genocide—namely, murdering “over 60,000 people” during the revolution in Timișoara.

Full Video of the Last Speech before the fall



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THE RISE OF HITLER TO POWER-A TIMELINE (PART 2)

Read Part One Here- PART ONE

 THE RISE OF HITLER (PART TWO)

1923-

The Beer Hall Putsch-

On November 8–9, 1923, Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party led a coalition group in an attempt to overthrow the German government. The plotters hoped to march on Berlin to launch a national revolution.

But their plan failed miserably.

Early Nazis who participated in the attempt to seize power during the 1923 Putsch


1924-

Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison. He spent less than a year behind bars, during which time he dictated “Mein Kampf,” his political autobiography.

READ ABOUT GANDHI’S LETTER’S TO HITLER

The putsch was a massive failure but Hitler’s Trial turned him into a National Figure.

On 4th May, The NSDAP contests the Reichstag elections for the first time, winning a total of 24 seats. Not enough to be a powerful force, But it was good enough nonetheless.

1925-

Hitler declares the reformulation of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) with himself as leader (Führer). He makes the declaration at the Bürgerbräukeller in Munich, the beer hall where he led his aborted coup against the democratically elected government in 1923.

ALSO CHECK-LUFTWAFFE AND THE BIG BEN

1926-

By the beginning of 1926, Hitler had overcome any remaining rivals within the Nazi Party and assumed the title of supreme leader. Ideological differences and infighting between factions of the Nazi Party were resolved by Hitler through his considerable powers of personal oratory skills.

1927-

Official films for the rallies began in 1927, with the establishment of the NSDAP (Nazi Party) film office.

1928-

Nazi’s fail miserably in the elections by just tallying 12 seats.

End Of Nazism and Hitler?

You know it’s not.

READ ABOUT THE MOST CRUEL NAZI.

1929-

Josef Goebbels is appointed head of the NSDAP propaganda department. Another Reichstag election sees a dramatic boost in NSDAP seats, from 14 to 107.

All thanks to Propaganda.

READ ABOUT THE PROPAGANDA POSTER’S USED BY NAZI’S

The Great Depression hits the Germans very hard.

Germans are extremely angry with the Government.

And as we know extreme ideology parties(left or right) grow in these conditions.

1930-

Nazi’s get 18% of the Votes in the 1930’s elections. Nazi’s start becoming a Power.

1932-

Nazis Fight hard, But Hidenburg Becomes the president again. But this time Hitler garnered almost 355 of the votes polled.

1933-

No government can be formed because of unstable coalition and hence no cabinet.

Lack of national unity and unstable Cabinet made The president Hidenburg to make Hitler The Chancellor Of Weimar Republic.

Hidenburg hated Hitler, But he did this for National Unity.

READ ABOUT NIETZCHE AND HITLER

February 1933-

The Reichstag Fire-

The Reichstag fire was an arson attack on the Reichstag building, home of the German parliament in Berlin, on Monday 27 February 1933, precisely four weeks after Adolf Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany.

Hitler blamed it on the communists and persuaded the president to suspend civil rights(yes the president had such a huge power)to maintain stability.

On March, The Nazis accumulate 44% of the Votes, Not enough to form a government, But they became the largest voted party.

With Coalitions, They form the Government.

March 1933-

THE ENABLING ACT

The Enabling Act allowed the Reich government to issue laws without the consent of Germany’s parliament, laying the foundation for the complete Nazification of German society.

July 1933-

On 14 July 1933 Germany became a one-party state decreeing the Nazi Party to be the sole legal party in Germany.

All other parties were made illegal.This was the point where Hitler held all the powers.

This was the point Germany fell under Dictatorship.

What followed were the greatest crimes in Modern Human History.

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You can Never take Neitczhe out of Nazism

 You can now also listen to this article on Spotify above!

 You can take Nazism out of Neitczhe, but you can never take Neitczhe out of Nazism.

Dheeraj Mohan

 It isn’t that surprising that the German philosopher influenced the Nazis because he has influenced the whole world but none more than the Nazis, who believed that the Aryan race was the Ubermensch described by Neitczhe.

Neitczhe never was a Nazi and neither did he share their ideology

He wasn’t even a nihilist as many believe him to be. He merely believed that Nihilism was a point in the journey to become the Ubermensch or the Supermen. 

He believed that the men of the future would be able to make thier own morals and will not be controlled by dead ideals. His famous claim “God is dead” says that the people who have killed the god have broken their chains and have become higher beings. People who are aware of what was.

The Nazis in contradiction believed the very German people were the Ubermensch and thus wanted to create a world of their own “Supermen”. 

It shows how a harmless philosophy can be bent into dogmas by individuals.

Neitczhe on the other hand died in solitude and become acknowledged only after his death.

Image-Nazi Depiction of the “Ubermensch

Written By-Dheeraj Mohan

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READ ABOUT GODWIN’S LAW AND HITLER

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#Trending Kerala,Boris Johnson and an Elephant! [Weird Modern History #2]

Weird Modern History #2

Boris Johnson and his relations with elephants in Kerala!

Boris came to Kerala in 2003.During his visit,He visited a temple in kerala for a marriage function.

Over there,An elephant named ‘Gopalan’ as well as The temple elephant was present.

The temple elephant ran towards the wedding procession and many were given a few bruises except Boris who miraculously escaped.

Minister S Krishnakumar who hosted the UK Prime Minister-designate in south India way back in 2003 quoted that-

“In Hindu philosophy, it is said that if you escape a temple elephant’s fury, the worst part of your life is over and your future is very bright”.

Look where he is now

The PM of Britian!

The words of Krishnakumar proved to be true for Boris Johnson!

Links-Did Kerala’s ‘rogue elephant’ prove lucky for Boris Johnson?

Read about Weird Modern History #1

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READ ABOUT GODWIN’S LAW AND HITLER

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Books Read By Gandhi

 

Gandhi is the one of the most influential person of the last century.

Surely the books he have read would have influenced in some manner.

Gandhi is said to have read tons of books during his lifetime,While we cant include all the books he read in his entire lifetime,we can do the same in parts of 10 books each.

Here are 10 books read by Gandhi, and maybe you should too-

1.A TALE OF 2 CITIES-

A tale of 2 cities was written by Charles Dickens.

A Tale of Two Cities is an 1859 historical novel by Charles Dickens, set in London and Paris before and during the French Revolution. The novel tells the story of the French Doctor Manette, his 18-year-long imprisonment in the Bastille in Paris and his release to live in London with his daughter Lucie, whom he had never met. The story is set against the conditions that led up to the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror

Gandhi is said to have liked the writing style of charles dickens and also liked the book.

Buy the book here-A Tale Of Two Cities at a low price.

2. THE TRIAL AND DEATH OF SOCRATES-

Written during the ancient times by Plato,Gandhi paraphrased the work as: ‘Story of A Soldier of Truth’ and published it in his newspaper Indian Opinion, and even translated it into Gujarati.

Buy the book here-TRIAL AND DEATH OF SOCRATES AT A LOW PRICE

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Your Sincere Friend,Gandhi

 

Image-Gandhi on the left,Hitler on the right

Gandhi wrote  2 letters to Hitler and Hitler never replied to them simply because he never got any of them in the first place

Both the letters were intercepted by the Britishers.

It would have been interesting to know what would happen if Hitler would have read the 2 letters written by Gandhi.

Following are the two letter written by Gandhi to Hitler-

Letter to Adolf Hitler, 1939

As AT WARDHA,
C.P.,
INDIA,
July 23, 1939

DEAR FRIEND,

Friends have been urging me to write to you for the sake of humanity. But I have resisted their request, because of the feeling that any letter from me would be an impertinence. Something tells me that I must not calculate and that I must make my appeal for whatever it may be worth. It is quite clear that you are today the one person in the world who can prevent a war which may reduce humanity to the savage state. Must you pay that price for an object however worthy it may appear to you to be? Will you listen to the appeal of one who has deliberately shunned the method of war not without considerable success? Anyway I anticipate your forgiveness, if I have erred in writing to you.

I remain,

Your sincere friend,

HERR HITLER

BERLIN GERMANY


Letter to Adolf Hitler, 1940

WARDHA,

December 24, 1940

DEAR FRIEND,

That I address you as a friend is no formality. I own no foes. My business in life has been for the past 33 years to enlist the friendship of the whole of humanity by befriending mankind, irrespective of race, colour or creed. 

I hope you will have the time and desire to know how a good portion of humanity who have been living under the influence of that doctrine of universal friendship view your action. 

We have no doubt about your bravery or devotion to your fatherland, nor do we believe that you are the monster described by your opponents. But your own writings and pronouncements and those of your friends and admirers leave no room for doubt that many of your acts are monstrous and unbecoming of human dignity, especially in the estimation of men like me who believe in universal friendliness. Such are your humiliation of Czechoslovakia, the rape of Poland and the swallowing of Denmark. 

I am aware that your view of life regards such spoliations as virtuous acts. But we have been taught from childhood to regard them as acts degrading humanity. Hence we cannot possibly wish success to your arms. But ours is a unique position. We resist British Imperialism no less than Nazism. If there is a difference, it is in degree.

 One-fifth of the human race has been brought under the British heel by means that will not bear scrutiny. Our resistance to it does not mean harm to the British people. We seek to convert them, not to defeat them on the battle-field. Ours is an unarmed revolt against the British rule. But whether we convert them or not, we are determined to make their rule impossible by non-violent non-co-operation. It is a method in its nature indefensible. It is based on the knowledge that no spoliator can compass his end without a certain degree of co-operation, willing or compulsory, of the victim. 

Our rulers may have our land and bodies but not our souls. They can have the former only by complete destruction of every Indian-man, woman and child. That all may not rise to that degree of heroism and that a fair amount of frightfulness can bend the back of revolt is true but the argument would be beside the point. For, if a fair number of men and women be found in India who would be prepared without any ill will against the spoliators to lay down their lives rather than bend the knee to them, they would have shown the way to freedom from the tyranny of violence. 

I ask you to believe me when I say that you will find an unexpected number of such men and women in India. They have been having that training for the past 20 years. We have been trying for the past half a century to throw off the British rule. The movement of independence has been never so strong as now. The most powerful political organization, I mean the Indian National Congress, is trying to achieve this end. We have attained a very fair measure of success through nonviolent effort. We were groping for the right means to combat the most organized violence in the world which the British power represents. You have challenged it. It remains to be seen which is the better organized, the German or the British. 

We know what the British heel means for us and the non-European races of the world. But we would never wish to end the British rule with German aid. We have found in non-violence a force which, if organized, can without doubt match itself against a combination of all the most violent forces in the world. In nonviolent technique, as I have said, there is no such thing as defeat. It is all ‘do or die’ without killing or hurting. It can be used practically without money and obviously without the aid of science of destruction which you have brought to such perfection. It is a marvel to me that you do not see that it is nobody’s monopoly. If not the British, some other power will certainly improve upon your method and beat you with your own weapon. You are leaving no legacy to your people of which they would feel proud. They cannot take pride in a recital of cruel deed, however skilfully planned. I, therefore, appeal to you in the name of humanity to stop the war.

 You will lose nothing by referring all the matters of dispute between you and Great Britain to an international tribunal of your joint choice. If you attain success in the war, it will not prove that you were in the right. It will only prove that your power of destruction was greater. Whereas an award by an impartial tribunal will show as far as it is humanly possible which party was in the right. You know that not long ago I made an appeal to every Briton to accept my method of non-violent resistance. I did it because the British know me as a friend though a rebel. I am a stranger to you and your people. I have not the courage to make you the appeal I made to every Briton. Not that it would not apply to you with the same force as to the British. 

But my present proposal is much simple because much more practical and familiar. During this season when the hearts of the peoples of Europe yearn for peace, we have suspended even our own peaceful struggle. Is it too much to ask you to make an effort for peace during a time which may mean nothing to you personally but which must mean much to the millions of Europeans whose dumb cry for peace I hear, for my ears are attuned to hearing the dumb millions? I had intended to address a joint appeal to you and Signor Mussolini, whom I had the privilege of meeting when I was in Rome during my visit to England as a delegate to the Round Table Conference. I hope that he will take this as addressed to him also with the necessary changes.

I am,

Your sincere friend,

M.K. GANDHI

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